1.What do you mean by agreeableness personality?
Represents to the ability of an individual to get along with other. People with agreeableness personality are caring, empathetic polite, etc. in nature.
2.What is personality?
Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his -unique adjustment to his environment. In other words, personality is a stable set of personal characteristics and tendencies that determine the commonalities and differences in people’s thoughts, beings and actions.
3.Enumerate the major determinants of personality.
The major determinants of personality are enlisted as follows: Nature (Inborn factors)
- Biological determinants
- Physical features Nurture (Environmental and situational factors)
- Cultural factors
- Family and social factors
- Situational factors
4.Differentiate between extrovert and introvert personality type.
The persons with extrovert personality type are the one who are outgoing, talkative, social and assertive in nature. On the contrary, introvert is exactly opposite to extrovert. Person’s with introvert personality are quite, shy and cautious in nature.
5.Contrast between thinking and judging types of personality.
Thinking and judging types of personality are contrasted as follows:
|Thinking Personality||Judging Personality|
|Individual with thinking personality use reason and logic to handle problem.||Individual with judging personality prefer their world to be ordered and structured.|
6.State Big Five personality traits.
The big five personality traits are enlisted as follows:
- Emotional stability
7.Enlist the major personality attributes influencing organizational behaviour.
The major personality attributes influencing organizational behaviour are enlisted as follows:
- Locus of control
- Risk taking
- Personality type
8.What is personality? What are its major determinants?
Concepts of Personality
Personality is the major factor that influences individual behaviour in an organization. To understand the behaviour of an individual or a person, one must be familiar about personality. By understanding the personality, behavior can be directed and controlled. Personality does not mean handsome and ugliness of human being. Instead, it is the aggregate form of traits, qualities and features of an individual. It is concerned with reaction and interaction of individual and situation. Thus, personality represents personal characteristics that lead to consistent patterns of behaviors.
Major Determinants of Personality
Is the personality predetermined at birth itself? Or is it the result of Individual’s interaction with one’s environment? Strictly speaking, there is no clear-cut answer to this question.
Different thinkers of personality have listed different determinants I of personality. In this regard, the major determinants of personality are explained briefly:
- Heredity factors: Personality is the aggregates form of traits, qualities and features of human beings. Individuals have unique genes and chromosomes. Most of the characteristics of our parents are transmitted to us through genes and chromosomes. Thus, heredity approach says that personality is the muscular structure of genes.
- Environmental factors: Personality is influenced by environmental factors also. For example, Le us suppose, someone is grown in an open society where talking with strangers
without a feel of shyness is common norm. Such environment is instrumental in developing a personality that can speak with confidence. On the contrary rural children may hesitate in talking with anyone as they are brought up in a narrow society.
- Situational factor: Another key determinant that shape personality is situation. Situation affects heredity and environment traits of people changes as per situation.
- Experience in life: Whether one trusts or mistrusts others, is miserly or generous, has a high or low self-esteem, and the like is at least partially related to the past experience the individual has had. For example, a person who has been betrayed time and again would take time to trust a new person. His personality will develop in such a way that he will look to people with a suspect eye.
9.Discuss the major personality attributes influencing organizational behaviour.
Major Personality Attributes Influencing 0B
The major personality attributes or traits that influence organizational behaviour are explained as follows:
- Locus of control: This concept denotes whether people believe that they are in control of events or events control them. Those who have an internal locus of control (internals) believe that they control and shape the course of events in their lives, while those who have an external locus of control (externals) believe that events occur purely by chance or because of factors beyond their own control. Internal, as compared to externals, seek more job related information, try to influence, other at work, seek opportunities for advancement and rely more on their own abilities and judgment at work.
- Machiavellians: Manipulation of others as a primary way of achieving one’s goals is what Machiavellians is all about. Individuals high on the Mach scale, a scale developed to measure the extent to which an individual tends to be Machiavellian tend to be cool, logical in assessing the system around them. Moreover, they are willing to twist and turn facts to influence others and try to gain control of people, events, and situations by manipulating the system to their advantage. Machiavellian may fool-a few people for a short time, but in the long run, they tend to be distrusted and disliked by many in the system and hence may become ineffective.
- Self-esteem and self-concept: Self-esteem denotes the extent to which individuals consistently regard themselves as capable, successful, important and worthy individuals. This is an important personality factor that determines how managers perceive themselves and their role in the organization. Self-esteem is important to self-concept, that is, the way individual define themselves as to who they are and derive their sense of identity. High self-esteem provides a high sense of self-concept; high self-concept in turn, reinforces high self-esteem. Thus, the two are – mutually reinforcing. Individuals high in self-esteem will try to take on more challenging assignments and be successful, thus enhancing their self- concept,
that is they would tend to define themselves as highly valuable and valued individuals in organization system. The higher the self, concept and self-esteem, the greater will be their contributions to the goals of the organization; especially when the system rewards them for them contributions.
- Tolerance for ambiguity: This personality characteristic indicates the level of uncertainty that people can tolerate without experiencing undue stress and can still function effectively. Managers have to work well under conditions of extreme uncertainty and insufficient information, especially when things are rapidly changing in the organization’s external environment. Managers who have a high tolerance for ambiguity can cope well under these conditions.
- Risk taking: People differ in their willingness to take risks: Individuals can be high risk taking and low-risk taking. High-risk taking managers tend to make quick decision with less information. However, demands of the job determine the degree of risk taking.
- Personality type: Individuals can have type A personality or type B personality. Type A persons feel a chronic sense of time urgency are high achievement oriented, exhibit a competitive drive and are impatient when their work is slowed down for any -reason. Type B persons -are easy going individuals who do not experience the competitive drive. Type A individuals are significantly more prone to heart attack than type B persons. While type A persons help the organization to move ahead in a relatively short period of time they may also suffer health problems, which might be detrimental to both themselves and the organization in the long run.
10.Differentiate between personality and behaviour. Explain the approaches you would follow for matching personality and jobs.
Differentiation between Personality and Behaviour Personality and behaviour are differentiated below.
|Personality is defined as the characteristic patterns of behaviour and modes of thinking that determine a person’s adjustment to the environment.||Behaviour is the outcome of external stimulus and internal cognitive or mental process.|
|Personality cannot be easily predicted and measured.||Behaviour can be predicted and can also be measured in some extent.|
|Personality is the source of new information received and interpreted by an individual.||Behaviour is the result of new information received and interpreted by an individual.|
|Personality mainly is the result of individual characteristics.||Behaviour is resulted from motivation and the result of situation.|
Approaches for Matching Personality and Jobs
Personality and jobs are matched to ensure personality-job fit. When a job is assigned as per the personality of the individual, high performance can be expected. So, a rational manager should always think of personality of the employee while assigning him any task.
Organizations operate in a dynamic and complex environment. They want employees who can readily change tasks and move between teams. They aim for a personality- organization fit. Organization should select those employees who fit better with organization’s culture.
This leads to high satisfaction and low turnover.
Some of the approaches that are followed for matching personality and jobs are explained below:
- Realistic: It prefers physical activities that require skill, strength and coordination. The personality characteristics of realistic are shy genuine, stable conforming etc. Their matching jobs are drill, press, etc.
- Investigative: It prefers activities that involve thinking organizing and understanding. The personality characteristics tare analytical, original curious, independent etc. – Their matching job are news reporter, mathematician, etc.
- Social: It prefers activities that involve helping and developing others. The personality
– characteristics are sociable, friendly, cooperative, understanding, etc. Their matching jobs are teaching, counsellor, social worker etc.
- Conventional: It prefers rule regulated, ordering and unambiguous activities. The personality characteristics are conforming, efficient, practical, unimaginative, inflexible, etc. Their matching jobs are accountant, bank teller, manager etc.
- Enterprising: It prefers verbal activities where there are opportunities to influence other and attain power. The personality characteristics are self-confident, ambitious, energetic dominating, etc. Their matching jobs are lawyer, P/R officer, and small business manager.
- Artistic: It prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allows creative expression. The personality traits are imaginative, idealistic, etc. Their matching jobs are painter, musician, writer, etc.
Thus, if jobs are matched to personality attributes, employee will be more motivated towards the job given to him. Therefore, a rational manager should be conscious regarding the type of the job and personality of the employee.