Define recruitment and mention the factor affecting the recruitment.
Recruitment is the process of finding qualified people and encouraging them to apply for the jobs in the organization. It finds out right people for the right position at the right time, it is the major aspects of acquisition which brings employee and employers close to each other. The goal to recruit is to receive enough qualified candidates from whome the desired people may be selected. The quality of HR depends upon the quality of recruit.
Factor Affecting Recuritment
i) Image of the organization.
ii) Image of the job.
iii) size and Growth of the organization
iv) Organizational policies
v) Government and Union Restriction
vi) demand and Supply
vii) Unemployment rate
Selection is the process of choosing qualified personnel for a particular position from the applicants. It involves various steps by which the candidates are short listed and finally selected to the most suitable candidates for vacant post. It is concerned with both hiring as well as rejecting the applicants. It is ultimately leads to employment of person who posses the ability and qualification to perform the jobs.
According to French “ selection is the process of choosing among people who apply for work with an organization.”
Define selection tests and describes the various types of selection test.
A selection tests is a device that uncovers the information about the candidates, which are not known through application blank. These tests are used to screen the best qualified candidates which can measure certain abilities, aptitudes, and skills that provides objectives information on how well the applicant can be expected to perform the job. It is the deep evaluation of a candidate.
There are several types of test which are in practice they are given below:
i) Achievement Test: Achievement tests are there to determine how well an individual can perform tasks related to the job. These test measure a person’s potential in a given area of job. These are also known as proficiency test and work simple test. This types of skill are already achieved by candidates through their education and experience. For example, a typing tests may measure the typing performance of a typist in terms of speed, accuracy and efficiency.
ii) Personality Test: This test tend to get certain personality factor of a candidates to the organization. The personality dimension include emotional maturity, self confidence, tact, decisiveness, sociability, objectivity, patience, initiative etc, of the candidates. This test leads the organization whether the candidate have good personality or sick personality.
iii) Aptitude Test: Aptitude test means the potential which an individual has for learning the skill required to do a job efficiently. It measure the learning capacity of the candidates. It determines whether the candidates will be capable of learning the job or not. Example of such test are Machanical aptitude test, clerical aptitude test and differential aptitude test.
iv) Intelligence Test: These tests measure capacity for comprehensive, reasoning, word fluency, verbal comprehension, number, memory and space. Such tests are generally quite good indicators of a candidate’s ability to learn quickly those jobs that involves conceptual thinking and problem solving.
v) Interest Test: This test are used to identify the likes and dislikes of candidates in relation to work, job, occupation, hobbies, and recreational activities. This test measure the correlation between the interest of candidates in a job and job success.
vi) Situational Test: These test evaluate a candidates in terms of facing the situation and condition that may arise during the job. In such test the candidates are asked to solve critical situation of the job. The examiners observe the candidates in the areas of initiating, leading, proposing valuable ideas, oral communication skills, coordinating and concluding skills.
Define interviews and describes the various types of selection interview.
Interview can be defined as a communication, conversation or verbal interaction between two or more people in order to capture the inner capabilities, communication skill and psychological factor of the candidates. It provides the better tools for the HR selection process. The factual data of the applicant given in the application blank can be checked and more information may be obtained from the candidates.
There are several types of selection interviews they are given below:
a) Structured Interview: The structured interview uses a set of standardized question that are asked to all applicants. It is also called direct approach because it has comprehensive questionnaire structure. Some types of question are asked to all the candidates, so that comparisons among applic ants can easily be made. This types of interview is preplanned and structured which has high validity and reliability because standardized evaluation forms are used to rate the candidate.
b) Situation Interview: This types of structured interview are taken to evaluate, how applicants might handle specific job situation. The situation are far more particular. The candidates are asked what his or her behavior would be in a given situation. This types of interview has great advantages to the interviewer to select the candidates. The question asked in situation interview may be hypothetical, related to job knowledge or work sample test.
c) Behavioral Interview: In behavioral interviews, applicants are required to give specific example of how they have performed a certain procedure or handled a problem in the past.
d) Unstructured Interviews: It is also known as nondirective interview on which, no any form to follow, no preplanned question, so interview can be taken in various direction as per interviewers wish. It is the conversation between interviewer and candidates, the question are arises as per the response of candidate and candidate are also free to expose their idea in the given subject matter. The question may be different for different candidates, so that comparison may be difficult among the participators.
Define socialization with its purpose.
Socialization can be defined as the process of adoption of a selected candidate into organization culture and work environment. For a new employee they feel unfamiliar, anxious and insecure. To reduce this types of problem the organization needs socialization. It is the ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing attitudes, standards, values and pattern of behavior that are expected by the organization and its department. It is designed to provide new employees with the information needed to function comfortably and effectively in the organization. Socialization process provide the information to the employee about the daily work routine, a review of the organization history, purpose, operation, product and service and a detailed presentation of the organization policies, work rules and employee benefit.
According to Decenzo and Robbins: “ Socialization is a process of adoption that takes place as individual attempt to learn values and norms of work roles.”
Purpose of socialization
i) Familiarizing with the organization.
ii) Creating Favorable attitude: Through socialization program, management seeks to create favorable attitudes towards the organization, its policies, and its personnel. Socialization creates the fitting environment to the employee and organization rules, norms and policies.
iii) Reducing anxiety : A new employee generally feel anxious while joining he organization. They worry about how well they will perform on the new job. Through a effective socialization process the anxiety of new employee can be throughout by giving the right information about organization policies, history, norms, values and working environment.
iv) To increase employee’s performance: The work performance depends on knowing what to do or not to do. Understanding the right way to do a job indicates proper socialization. As a result employee performance and quality of work improve.
v) To screen out unsuitable employee
vi) To increase organizational stability.
Human Resource Development
Concept: HRD is a mechanism of building competent, committed, and loyal human resource in order to meet organizational challenges at present and in future. In other words, HRD is concerned with transforming an individual into organizational resource, which can be utilized to capitalize the opportunity and overall organizational development.
According to DeCenzo and Robbins, “Human resource development is concerned with preparing employees to work effectively and efficiently in an organization”.
Thus, HRD is the process of energizing the human potential through training and development, performance appraisal and career development program that can be used for organizational enhancement.
Importance of HRD:
- Develop skills and abilities.
- Facilitates career development.
- Increase employees’ commitment on the job.
- Improves decision making.
- Manage change and conflicts.
- Environmental adaptation.
- Link business strategy and employees’ performance.
Training is the process of providing the ideas, knowledge and methodology to the staffs to fit-in in the job requirements. In other words, training is a learning experience, which relatively change an individual behavior that will improve his/her ability to perform on the job.
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills in an employee for doing a particular job.”
Similarly, According to Casio: “Training consists of planned designed to improve performance at the individual, group and organizational levels.”
Thus, training is a technique to upgrade employees’ skills and knowledge to work in a changed work process and position and to fit-in in it.
Objectives of training:
The major objective of training is to bring positive change in employees’ knowledge, skills and attitude towards the work. The general objectives of training are as follows:
- Update capabilities: Environment is dynamic. Change in environmental factors obsolete the working methods, technology and also change the peoples’ behaviors. Thus, training aims to update the knowledge and ideas needs to overcome these challenges by the employees.
- Develop healthy attitude: Work knowledge is must for any workers, who is responsible to do it. Training provides the necessary skill and techniques to perform the job easily and promptly. It not only develops the positive attitude toward the work but also facilitates better co-operation, commitment and loyalty of employees.
- Socialization: Training always aims to socialize employees towards organizational setting. The skills and ideas learned from training is helpful for an individual to fit-in the job and behave as per its requirement.
- Develop future potential: An individual with skills and knowledge is a possible candidate for promotion or getting the challenging job. This helps an individual to fulfill his career goals. Thus, training is means for future growth of employees.
- Improve Productivity: Training improves individual potentiality. It develops confidence and positive attitude towards work. These bring less labor turnover, absenteeism, operational errors, which enhances overall productivity of an organization.
Benefits of training:
The benefits of training programs are as follows:
- It helps to make successful implementation of change program (change management).
- Increases organizational performances.
- Makes people committed to achieving organizational objectives.
- Increase attraction in organization.
- Maximize individual performance and minimizes complaints.
Determining Training Needs
Training needs can be determined by answering the following questions:
- What are organizational goals?
- What tasks are must to be completed to achieve these goals?
- What behaviors are necessary for each incumbent to complete hi/her assigned tasks?
- What deficiencies, if any do incumbents have in the skills, knowledge or attitude required to perform the necessary behaviors?
Job requirements – Employee capabilities = Training Needs.
Training is required only when, three is a deviation or gap between the job requirement and employee capabilities. Usually, due to the following reasons training is required.
- Worsening of employees’ performance.
- Change in current technology and work practices.
- Employees’ promotion.
- For increasing productivity and effectiveness of certain units of operation.
Training need analysis is a systematic process of understanding training requirements. It is conducted as three stages. They are:
- Organizational need analysis: The organizations’ need analysis is aimed at short listing the focus area for training within the organization and the factors that may affect the same .The study of organizational mission, goals, people inventories etc. gives idea about the kind of learning environment required for the training. Besides, the financial ability to conduct training programs can also be ascertained by organizational analysis.
- Job need analysis: The job analysis is the need assessment the job to be performed to achieve an organizational goal. It is done to get information on the task to be performed on each job and the skill required to do it.
- Individual analysis: Individual performance is a major factor for goal achievement. His/her abilities and attitude towards the job is crucial for success of organization. So individual ability is measured and evaluated to find out deficiencies that restrict to meet the standard performance of the job.
Another view of training need is that, it is the deviation between what is and what should be. The assessment gives insight into what kind of intervention is required, knowledge or skill or both. In certain cases when both of these are present and the performance is still missing then the problem may be motivational in nature. It thus, highlights the need and appropriate intervention which is essential to make the training effective.
- On-the-job training.
- Off-the-job training.
- On-the –job training: A training which is given to the employees while they are conducting their regular work at their own job place is known as on-the-job training. It includes,
- Apprenticeship training: It is a structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training. It is widely used to train individual for many occupations like electrician, plumber, iron-workers etc. Under this method of training the trainee is put under the guidance of the master worker. Usually, the apprenticeship period is for two to four years as per the work complexity and under this period, the trainee is paid less than fully qualified workers.
- Job instruction training (JIT): JIT is a step by step training program, under which each job basic task along with key point is listed. The steps show what is to be done, and the key points show how it is to be done and why. The four basic steps of JIT are:
- Preparing the trainees by telling them about the job and overcoming uncertainties.
- Presenting the instruction, giving essential information in a clear manner.
- Having the trainees’ tryout the job to demonstrate their understanding.
- Placing the workers into the job, on their own, with a designated resource person to call upon when they need assistance.
Advantages of on-the –Job training:
- It is relatively inexpensive than off the job training.
- Trainees learn by doing and get quick feedback on their performance.
- Employees can begin to contribute to the production process while undergoing the training.
- It is a very simple method and employees experience the real job situation. Disadvantages of on the job training:
- Chances of damage to equipment during the training period.
- Scrap rate and reject rate of the products may high.
- Service quality to customer may be affected when a new employee in the training period provides services.(e.g. In restaurant and in banking work)
- Off-the-job training: The training organize outside the worksite is known as off the job training. Usually it is classroom based and assumes to remove the work-stress and achieve effective learning. The most commonly used off the job training methods are :
- Class room Lecture or conference: It is the method of delivering the information through oral means. It is quick and simple way to provide knowledge and information to large group of trainees.Under this method, a trainer discusses theoretical aspects of information related to the job.
- Films: Motion picture can also be used for providing training to the workers. Usually it is used with conference discussion to clarify and enlarge those points that are basic requirement and key point (activities) for job performance.
- Simulation exercise: Any training activity that explicitly places the trainees in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working condition can be considered a simulation. It includes, computer modeling, experiential exercises and vestibule training.
- Experiential exercises: It is usually short, structured learning experiences where individual learn by doing. E.g. managing conflict in an organization: An artificial conflict situation is created and employees have to deal with it, and develop a resolution for it. After completing the exercise, the facilitator discusses what happen and introduce theoretical concept to help explain the members’ behavior during the exercise.
- Computer modeling: Complex computer modeling stimulates the work environment by programming a computer to imitate some of the realities of the job. It is widely used by airlines in the training of pilots. An error during a simulation offers an opportunity to learn through one’s mistake.
- Vestibule training: In vestibule training, employee learns their job on the equipment they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work-floor. Usually, the vestibule lab that stimulated the actual workplace environment is created, under which, the trainees train. It allows employees to get a full feel for doing task without “real world” pressure.
- Programmed Instruction: Under this technique, the program to be learned is highly organized with logical sequences that require the trainee to response and giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his/her answers. It is the step by step process that follows the following steps.
- Presenting questions, facts or problems to the learners.
- Allowing the person to respond.
- Providing feedback on the accuracy of the answers Advantages of off the job training:
- Large number of employees can be trained through this method.
- The trainee will learn without the work-pressure of the job.
- Costly errors and injuries can be avoided during training.
- Relatively less time is required as in on the job training. Disadvantages of off the job training:
- Due to large number of trainee, specific job need of the trainee may not be fulfilled.
- Due to lack of real working places, there may be low degree of involvement by employees, both mentally and physically.
- It is not useful for developing interpersonal skills.
- It is relatively costly than on the job training.
Management development is any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitude or increasing skills. In other words, it is a systematic process which prepares managers to handle present and future responsibilities.
According to DeCenzo and Robbins, “Management development is more future oriented and more concerned with education, than is employee training or assisting a person to become a better performer.”
Thus, management development is the process of enhancing one’s ability to overcome the environmental managerial challenges that is encountered by an organizational setting.
Objectives of management development program
- Increase the productivity and effectiveness of managers.
- Assist the organization to identify its future leaders and accelerate their upward mobility.
- Enable organization to produce the number of competent manger to anticipate growth needs.
- Encourage self-development and increases ability of managers to take greater responsibility.
- Enhancing managerial job satisfaction.
- Encourages the climate of participative management where individual and the organization can mutually set performance goals and measurement techniques.
Techniques of management development:
- On the job management development: On the job management development includes the following development methods.
- Job rotation: It means moving management trainees from department to department to broaden their understanding of all parts of the business and to test their abilities. The advantages of this method are: It develops the links between departments, develops employee’s flexibility to undertake different types of activities.
- Coaching: Under this method, the trainee is guided actively by senior managers. The coach gives guidance through direction, advice criticism and suggestion in an attempt to aid the growth of an employee (trainee).The disadvantages of this method are there is a possibility of continuing the current management style and practices in an organization, heavy reliance on coach’s ability etc.
- Under study assignment: Under this technique, the potential managers are given opportunity to relieve (ease) an experienced manager of his/her job and act as his/her substitute during the period. Through this method, an individual get opportunity to see the job in total in short period.
- Committee learning/action learning: Under this technique, a group of people or team is assigned and gives an opportunity share in managerial decision making, to learn by watching other and to investigate specific organizational problems. This is temporary in nature, however, it increases trainees’ exposure to other members, broadens his /her understanding and provides an opportunity to grow and make recommendation under the scrutiny of other committee members.
- Off the job management development: It includes the following methods.
- Lecture courses: Different universities and colleges are providing training and development to suit particular organizational needs. This formal lecture courses offer an opportunity for manger or potential mangers to acquire knowledge and develop their conceptual and analytical abilities. This is a popular method of bringing all participants up to a common level knowledge.
- Transactional analysis: It is both an approach for defining and analyzing communication interaction between people and theory of personality. The basic foundation of this analysis is that personality consists of three egos state they are the parent ego, the child ego and the adult ego.
- Parent ego: It is an ego state of authority and superiority. A person acting in a parent state is usually dominant, scolding and authoritative. The parent state act what he/she was taught so the attitude and behavior is incorporated from external sources.
- Child ego: The child consists of tall the forces and emotion that are natural. The person at this state can be obedient or manipulative, charming at one moment and repulsive the next. The child is emotional and act according to how he/she feels at the moment.
- Adult ego: The adult ego state is objective and rational. It always seeks for information, analyze it and then only show its behavior .It deals with reality and think before acting.
- Simulation: Simulation includes role play, case studies and decision (management) games.
- Role play: Role playing is acting on a specific situation. The aim of role playing is to create a realistic situation and then have the trainees assumed the part of specific person in that situation.
- Case studies: Under this technique, trainees study the cases of determined problems (taken from the actual experiences of organizations) analyze the causes, develop alternative solutions, select what they believe to be the best solution and implement it. It encourages discussion among participants as well as excellent opportunities for individual to defend their analytical and judgmental abilities.
- Decision (management) games: Under this technique, the computer management games are used, which creates the real business situation. The team of member or trainee makes decision by analyzing such situation. Management games can be a good development tools.People learns best by being involved. The trainees develop their problem-solving skills as well as to focus attention on planning rather than just executing activities.
- Sensitivity training: Under this method, members are brought together in a free and open environment in which participants discuss themselves. They express their ideas, beliefs and attitudes. The objective of sensitivity training is to provide manger s with increased awareness of their own behaviors and of how others perceive them greater sensitivity to the behavior of others and increased of group process.(It helps to increase the ability to understand other’s behaviors, improved listening skills, greater openness, increase tolerance for individual differences and improved conflict resolution skills.)
Evaluating training effectiveness:
Evaluation involves the assessment of the effectiveness of the training program. Evaluating training effectiveness is one of the major functions of training and development program. It acts as a check to ensure that the training is able to fill the competency gaps within the organization in a cost effective way. The reasons behind evaluation of training program effectiveness are:
- It ensures the fulfillment of the job requirement.
- Its feedback mechanism helps to take quick corrective actions, whenever and wherever required.
- Cost-benefit trade-off can be ascertained.
Criteria for measuring training effectiveness (Kirkpatrick Model)
Training effectiveness can be measured under four basic criteria. They are:
- Reaction (Thoughts and feelings of the participants about the training): Reaction implies how favorably the participants have responded to the training. This evaluation
is primarily quantitative in nature and is a feedback to the training and the trainer. The most common collection tools is the questionnaire that analysis the content, methodology, facilities and the course content.
- Learning (The increase in knowledge or understanding as the result to the training): At the level of learning the evaluation is done on the basis of change in the attitudes, skills and knowledge of the trainees. The evaluation involves observation and analysis of the voice, behavior, text. Other tools used besides observation are interviews, surveys, pre and post tests etc.
- Behavior (extent of change in behavior, attitude or capability): Behavior evaluation analysis helps to know about the transfer of learning from the training session to the workplace. Under this level, how an individual execute his/her activities after training is evaluated.
- Result (the effect on the bottom line of the company as a result of training): The result stage makes evaluation towards the objective of an organization (such as: higher productivity, better quality etc) .Here, the definition of the result depends upon the goal of the training program. The evaluation is done by using a control group allowing certain time for the result to be achieved.
Methods (Approaches) of evaluation training effectiveness:
Following are the method for evaluating the training effectiveness:
- Test –retest method: Under this approach, participants are given a test before they being the program. After the program is completed, the participants retake the test. The change in the test score indicates the change in the level of knowledge. This method is easy and simple to conduct however, it is not a valid method.
- Pre-post performance method: In this method, each participant is evaluated prior to training and rated on actual job performance. After instruction is completed the participants are reevaluated. This method is very useful to examine the effects of training on changing the participants knowledge and skills and their attitudes in the real job situations.
- Experimental-Control group method: This method is used to evaluate the difference in the knowledge, skills and intelligence of the control and experimental group. Members of the control group work on the job but do not undergo instruction. The experimental group is given the instruction. At the end of the training program, the two groups and reevaluated and if the performance of the experimental group improves, training is regarded as on effective one.
Process of evaluating training program:
- Developing evaluation criteria.
- Pre-testing the trainees.
- Providing monitoring the training.
- Comparing pre and post ability of the trainees.
- Evaluation of fulfillment of competency group and take corrective action.
Training and management development in Nepal
Training and management development program is considered as a cost burden function in most of the organization in Nepal. These organizations view training as the requirement of the staff and so the staffs need to pay for the expenses incurred. These organizations do not want to involve their organizational cost in those programs. However due to globalization the new manager and new management teams are changing those views and willing to provide training on organization’s expenses. They think if the people are competent enough to execute the activities then, organization can able to compete as well as capitalize the opportunities and sustain in long-term.
Problems in training and management development are:
- Views as cost burden activities.
- Show unwillingness to conduct.
- High labor turnover.
- Lack of training institution.
- Lack of implementation
- Don’t know about career development. Etc.