- Their seeds are naked and not enclosed in fruits.
- They bear male and female cone instead of flower.
- They are usually tall tree.
- Their stem is usually stock unbranched and carrying long needle shaped leaves.
- Seeds are enclosed in fruits.
- They have generally bisexual flower.
- They may be small herb, shrub or tall trees.
- Their leaves are flat and broad which may be simple or compound.
- Their seed contains only one cotyledon.
- They have long leaf with parallel venation.
- They have fibrous root system.
- They have two cotyledons in their seeds.
- They have broad leaves with reticulate venation.
- They have tap root system.
Subphylum: 1. Hemichordata
- Pisces: Fishes, Sea-horse etc.
- They have two chambered heart.
- They breathe through gills.
- Their locomotion takes place by fins.
- Amphibians: Frog, Toads etc
- They live both on land and water.
- They breathe with the help of skin in water and with lungs on land.
- Body is divided into head and trunk.
- Reptiles: Snake , Tortoise etc.
- Their locomotion takes place by crawling.
- Their body is covered with dry scales.
- Aves: Birds
- Their body is covered with feathers.
- Their forelimbs is modified into wings.
- They have toothless beak.
- Mammals: horse, cow etc.
- They have mammary glands.
- Their body is covered with hair.
- They give birth to their young ones.
* Diff. between monocotyledons and dicotyledons
|1. They have single cotyledon in the seed||1. They have double cotyledon in the seed|
|2. They have fibrous root system||2. They have taproot system.|
|3. Leaves have parallel venation||3. Leaves have reticulate venation|
|4. Ex. Maize, race etc.||4. Ex. Pea, gram etc|
|Poikilothermic animal||Homoethermic animals|
|Their body temperature changes accoding to the change of environmental temperature.They are also known as cold blooded animals.||Their body temperature remains constants.They are also known as warm blooded animals.|
|Horse It belongs to class mammalian.It has four chambered heart.||Sea horse It belongs to class pisces.It has two chambered heart.|
1. Classification of plants and animals is required.
Ans- Classification of plants and animals is required due to the following reasons.
– It helps to make the study of plants and animals easy and systematic.
– It also helps to predict the characteristics of unseen plants and animals.
– It gives guides to the researchers to find the evolutionary trend of organisms.
2. Mustard is called dicotyledonous plant.
Ans- Mustard is called dicotyledonous plant because of the following reasons.
– It has two cotyledons in the seed.
– It has tap root system.
– It has reticulate ventation in the leaves.
3. Maize is called monocotyledonous plant.
Ans- Maize is called monocotyledonous plant because of the following reasons:
– It has one cotyledon in the seed.
– It has fibrous root system.
– It has parallel venation in the leaves.
4. Pinus is kept under the dividion gymnosperm.
Ans- Pinus is kept under the division gymnosperm because of he following reasons:
– It is naked seeds.
– It has needle shaped leaves.
5. Bat is kept under mammals.
Ans- Bat is kept under mammals because of the following reasons:
– It is a vertebrate that gives direct birh to young ones.
– Female has mammary glands.
6. Fish is called cold blooded animals.
Ans- Fish is called cold blooded animals because the temperature of body of fish changes with the temperature of surrounding.
7. Gymnosperm has no real fruit.
Ans- Gymnosperm has no real fruit due to absence of overy.
8. Vertebrates are considered more developed than invertebrates.
Ans- Vertebrate are considered more developed than invertebrates because of the following reasons:
– Bones are present in vertebrates.
– Various organs and systems are well developed in vertebrates.
– Nervous system is well developed in vertebrates.
9. Amphibians are kept in phylum chordate.
Ans- because of the following reasons:
– Notochord is present in early stage of development.
– Dorsal tubular present in early stage of development.
– Closed blood system is present.
10. Horse and cow are kept in the phylum chordate and sub-phylum vertebrate.
Ans- because of the following reasons:
– They are back boned animal with mammary glands.
– Mid-dorsal tubular hollow nerve cord running above notochord is found in its body.
11. The bryophytes are called plant amphibians.
Ans- Water is necessary for the completion of life cycle of bryophytes though the they grow on land so they are called plant amphibians.
12. Although the Latin names of plant and animals are difficult to pronounce and remember, we use them.
Ans- The Latin names of plant and animals are universal and same in all the language and countries. Therefore, we use Latin names of plant and animals how difficult they are pronounce and remember.
13. Fish and frog are cold blooded and bird and bat are warm blooded animals.
Ans- The body temperature of fish and frog are not constant i.e. the body temperature varies with environmental temperature. So they are called cold blooded animals. To protect the body, they go in the hibernation.
The body temperature of bird and bat ramain constant i.e.the body temperature does not vary with environmetal temperature. So they are called warm blooded animals.
14. Lizard is kept in class reptilian.
Ans- Lizard is kept in class reptilian because of the following reasons:
– It craws on the ground.
– Body is covered with hard, dry and hormy scales.