* The chemical compound which is formed by the bonding between carbon and hydrogen is called hydrocarbon.
* Hydrocarbon is of two types.
i. Saturated hydrocarbon
The hydrocarbon in which there is single bond between carbon atoms is called saturated hydrocarbon.
ii. Unsaturated hydrocarbon:
The hydrocarbon in which there is double or triple bond between the carbon atoms is called unsaturated hydrocarbon.
* The saturated hydrocarbon is also called ‘Alkane’. Its general formula is CnH2nt2
* The unsaturated hydrocarbon is also called alkene or alkyne.
* Full form of IUPAC- International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
* LPG-Liquefied Petroleum gas
* The group of hydrocarbon which contains the same functional group but has the different gain length is called homologous series.
* The self linking property of carbon in which one carbon atom combines with the other Carbon atom is called the ‘Catencetion Property’ of Carbon-Due to this property of Carbon, the hydro-carbons are found in larges number.
* The hydrocarbon unit derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from alkale, is called alkyl group or alkali radical.
* The atom or the group of atoms (radical). Which determines the chemical behaviour of the organic compound is called the functional group.
|S.N.||Name of Functional group||Structure of functional group|
* The organic compound containing the hydroxyl group (OH) attacked to a saturated Carbon Atom or hydrocarbon radical. Example:
Methyl Alcohol (CH3OH)
Ethyl Alcohol (CH3CH2OH)
* Alcohol is used for
– Alcoholic beverage
– Producing heat
– Solvent for drugs, oils etc.
– Fluid in thermometer,
* Glycerol is the dihydric alcohol.
Molecular formula: CH2HO-CHOH-CH2OH
* Uses of glycerol.
– To preserve tobacco, fruits and other edibles obstacles
– To make medicine, printing inks, stamps
– To protect skin from being derived
– Manufacture of high quality of soaps and cosmetic goods.
* Ether: It is the compound which contains an oxygen atom linked with two alkyl by a single bond.
R-O-R (Where R=alkyl)
Uses of ether
– It is used as solvent
– Used as refrigerant
– Used as local anesthesia
– For purifying organic compounds by extraction.
- Hydrocarbons are called parents compounds.
Ans- Hydrocarbons are called parent compounds because billions of compounds are formed from hydrocarbons.
- Glycerol is a trihydric alcohol.
Ans- Glycerol is a trihydric alcohol because it has three by hydroxyl groups.
- Carbon forms covalent bond.
Ans- Carbon forms covalent bond because it shares its electrons with atoms of either same elements or other elements to form covalent compounds.
- Alkanes are also called paraffin’s.
Ans- Alkenes or saturated h hydrocarbons are also called paraffin’s because they are chemically less reactive.
- Alkenes are also called olefins.
Ans- Alkenes are also called olefins because they react with chlorine and produce oil-like derivatives.
- Alkane is use as fuel.
Ans When alkanes burn, they decompose in to carbon dioxide and water vapor with the evolution of a large amount of heat so it is used as fuel.
- Methane is also called as marsh gas.
Ans- Methane is also called as marsh gas because it occurs in marshy areas where it is formed by the bacterial decomposition of plant and animal matters.
- Methane is called natural gas.
Ans- Since methane gas is widely found in coal, minerals and gas stores and also in bio-gas and gover gas, it is called natural gas.
- Propane is called saturated hydrocarbon.
Ans- Propane does not undergo additional reaction as there is single covalent bond in between two carbon atoms on propane. Hence, It called saturated hydrocarbon.
- Ethylene is called unsaturated hydrocarbon.
Ans- Since there is a double bond between two carbon atoms, ethylene is called unsaturated hydrocarbon.
- Ethane is called a hydrocarbon.
Ans- Ethane is called a hydrocarbon because it is made up of carbon and hydrogen only.
- Alkynes are also called acetylenes.
Ans- Alkynes are also called acetylenes after the name of the first member of the series called acetylene.
13. Bond between carbon’s is week.
Ans- Bonds between carbon atoms is weak because it is covalent bond and covalent bonds are weaker.
14. Sulphuric acid is called king of a lid.
Ans- H2SO4 is most powerful acid among common chemical acid. It destroys anything including its own compounds very few other acids can destroys its own compounds H2SO4 is also transformable. It can be either diluted to the maximum extent as well as made concentrated to the maximum extent possible.